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An ESL teacher demonstrates the learning activity as the students watch. After showing the students what to do, the teacher repeats the demonstration as learners follow along. Soon the students are capable of performing the task without hesitation. This type of modeling by a teacher helps ESL students become comfortable with classroom activities and helps them to know what is expected on assignments.


The smallest meaningful unit in the grammar of a language that cannot be further divided. For instance, unhappy has two morphemes, “un” which means not and “happy” which means joyful. Both of these two morphemes carry meaning and cannot be further divided.


The study of word structure, root words, new word creation, word changes, and morphemes that go into building words. 

Multisensory Activities

Planned lesson activities that tap into more than one of the senses. Learning can be enhanced through hands-on activities that give ESL learners an opportunity to absorb information through their senses. There is a Chinese saying that describes the benefits of this: “Tell me, I forget; show me, I remember; involve me, I understand.” ESL students need to be totally involved in their learning.


Needs Analysis

Using questionnaires and interviews to find out what students need or want to study.

Non-verbal Communication

A type of communication including body language: gestures, eye movement, posture, appearance, facial expressions, body contact, etc. Nonverbal communication can vary from culture to culture.



Things that you hope will be done or achieved by the end of an activity or a lesson.

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