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Language activities, techniques, and methods in which learners are the focus and the teacher plays only a peripheral role. Students are allowed some control over activities and some input into the curriculum. These activities encourage student creativity and autonomous learning. Group work is one kind of student-centered activity.


A bound morpheme attached to the end of a word that often changes the word’s part of speech, and sometimes its meaning, but (in the case of inflectional morphemes) can also simply change nouns to plural or indicate a change in verb tense.


A humanistic teaching method where instructors strive to create an environment conducive to learning by utilizing tools such as relaxing wall colors, background music, and artwork.


Speech features such as stress, rhythm, intonation, pitch, linking, pausing, and thought groups. Whereas segmentals refer to individual sounds, suprasegmentals extend past this and refer to things such as a string of sounds, syllables, words, phrases or sentence level sound features.  

Surface Culture

People’s behaviors, actions, and practices, such as language, manners, customs, food, music, clothing, art, and literature.

Synchronous Online Learning

Classes that take place entirely online and have a component which requires the student and teacher to both be online at a specified time. Synchronous courses can include phone conferencing, video conferencing, or chat.


The study of how words function together to create units like phrases, clauses or sentences.  This includes word order, sentence formation, question formation, and parts of speech (articles, nouns, verbs, etc.).

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