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Looking for or listening for specific bits of information to answer a query.


A theory stating that a student brings in his or her own knowledge and experiences when trying to read or listen to a text/selection.


Schwa /ǝ/ is the smallest English vowel sound. It is the most frequent vowel sound in continuous (connected) speech, yet it never carries stress.

Second Language Acquisition (SLA)

When ESL students are capable of internalizing the new (second) language and communicating effectively. The educator needs to implement modifications in classroom instruction until the second language learner has mastered English. Speaking English for simple communication will happen in the early acquisition stages; however, complete language acquisition takes at least five to seven years. (see “Acquisition”)


Individual phonemes (i.e., sounds) of vowels and consonants.


Procedures by which learners evaluate their own language skills and/or knowledge, allowing ESL students to assess their own work and observe their progress. For example, a self-assessment form may be used to record students’ thoughts and feelings about the presented work. Students are given the responsibility to assess themselves and actively be a part of their academic success.


The meaning of language, such as a word’s common synonyms, definition(s), and metaphorical meanings. 

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