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Mobile-Assisted Language Learning. Includes the use of mobile devices such as cellular mobile phones, tablets, etc. that are used for educational purposes.


Concrete objects used to demonstrate learning concepts. The use of manipulatives appeals to ESL students’ senses in order to enhance the meaning of the presented information. Students have the opportunity to hear, see, and touch manipulatives to promote the learning process and language acquisition.

Meaningful Input

Lesson input (usually a reading text or listening passage) that includes target language within a meaningful context.


The language used to describe language items (e.g., grammar terminology) or used in class to give instructions or explanations.


How a language is taught. A method is made up of a set of techniques that reflect a certain philosophy of language teaching.

Minimal Pairs

Two words that contain all the same phonemes (sounds) except for one (e.g., sheep and ship, or rice and lice). Minimal pairs are useful for practicing discriminating between two difficult phonemes (sounds).


An ESL teacher demonstrates the learning activity as the students watch. After showing the students what to do, the teacher repeats the demonstration as learners follow along. Soon the students are capable of performing the task without hesitation. This type of modeling by a teacher helps ESL students become comfortable with classroom activities and helps them to know what is expected on assignments.

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