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The inflection and various spellings of verbs. Conjugation may be affected by person, number, gender, tense, aspect, mood, or voice.

Content-Based Instruction (CBI)

A teaching method that focuses on content or contexts in which students would use English instead of solely focusing on grammar. A topic or theme is chosen and all language aspects are taught through that topic or theme.

Cooperative Learning

When students work in small groups toward social and academic learning goals. Small mixed groups allow ESL students to feel at ease while learning English. Peers in the group support the new language learners as they discuss the lesson material in English. The group atmosphere provides a non-threatening environment for students and self-confidence is strengthened.

Corrective Feedback

Feedback highlighting (and possibly correcting) student errors in speech, such as mispronunciations or grammatical errors.

Course Goals

Larger course aims for an extended period of time as opposed to learning objectives, which usually state what a student will be able to do at the end of a lesson. Course goals are often stated in terms of broad course content and tasks, or what a student will do over the length of a course.

Cultural Dimensions

Categories reflecting attitudes in different cultures that can be viewed on scales such as equality vs. hierarchy, direct vs. indirect, individual vs. group, and task vs. relationship.

Culture Shock

A series of stages (honeymoon, culture-shock, adjustment, reverse culture shock) experienced by a person who is immersed in a foreign culture. The length of each stage varies from person to person and depends on previous travel experience, openness to new cultures, and willingness to adjust.

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