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A teacher’s relationship or connection with their students based on learners’ positive feelings for their teacher.


Any objects used in the classroom that bring the class to life (i.e., relate classroom teaching to the real world).

Realistic Materials

Materials that have been developed with the second language learner specifically in mind; they generally accompany ESL/EFL texts or are produced by the teacher for specific students.

Receptive Skills

When the learner is receiving incoming language (listening or reading).


The term used for shortened forms of spoken words. For example, native speakers are likely to pronounce “could have” as “coulda” and “going” to as “gonna” in regular speech.


The style or type of language used within a particular context. For example, ESL/EFL students must learn to distinguish language that is used in formal registers (e.g., job interview of business email) versus language that is used in informal registers (e.g., relaxed situations or communication with friends).


The combination of stressed and unstressed parts of a sentence.

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