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Deep Culture

People’s attitudes, beliefs, and core values that constitute the main part of our cultural differences. Some examples include our attitudes toward gender, social status, age, raising children, perception of time, role of family, etc.

Delayed Feedback

Feedback provided after the fact, once a student has finished speaking. It allows a teacher to provide constructive comments without interrupting student speech.

Diagnostic Assessment

An assessment instrument or procedure that attempts to diagnose, or identify, a learner’s strengths and weaknesses, typically so that an efficient and appropriate course of instruction can be presented.


A teaching approach in which different instructional methods and techniques are implemented based on the individual needs of learners.


A phoneme (sound) containing two vowel sounds, one gliding into the second one.

Direct Method

A method of language learning associated with Francois Gouin and Charles Berlitz. Second language learning should model first language learning in that it should be learned directly; grammar is taught inductively with no explanations, the learner’s first language is not used in the class, and new vocabulary is introduced by demonstration. One of many highly idiosyncratic methods that were developed in the 1970’s.

Discourse Markers

A class of spoken or written language that connects speech or written text together. In spoken language, for example, words such as “so” and “well” might be used to connect ideas or shift the conversation. In written language, the transition words “however” or “on the other hand” are used to show contrast. Both the spoken and written examples function to connect or show a relationship between past and future language.


A method to introduce role play activities involving all students in the classroom in order to enhance language acquisition for ESL students. Stories can be acted out to reinforce comprehension skills and language skills, and learners absorb the rhythm and meanings of words in the new language. A fun way to learn without as many inhibitions.


An activity in which students repeat the same (or slightly changed) words, phrases, or sentences after the teacher in order to memorize the newly introduced language.

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